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We chose and preregistered to pool across the three transparent conditions for testing prediction 3, due to the need for higher statistical power to detect the predicted interaction effect. Full witcher 2 roche models and additional analyses using logistic regression (given the binary vaccine acceptance variable) are available in SI Appendix, Witcher 2 roche and S21, respectively.

The preregistered analyses do not include any attention witcher 2 roche, but we report equivalent findings excluding inattentive respondents in SI Appendix, S18. Does vaccine acceptance increase in the face of transparent communication and decrease in the face of vague communication. Against prediction 1 but replicating the findings of study 1, Fig.

Marginal effects are calculated using OLS regression to regress the outcome variable on communication conditions. The reference category is the control condition.

All outcome variables vary between 0 and 1. Is the effect of transparent relative to vague communication larger among those who hold conspiracy-related beliefs. In fact, the significant negative interaction term for conspiracy mentality suggests that wiycher communication is less effective among those high in conspiratorial mentality. Hence, against prediction 3, the transparent declaring of vaccine features does not motivate those with a conspiracy-related mindset rochhe get vaccinated. Graphical displays witcher 2 roche the interaction effects appear in SI Appendix, S20.

Exploratory analyses in SI Appendix, S19, furthermore, demonstrate (consistent with the associations witcher 2 roche Fig. Does endorsement of conspiracy beliefs decrease in the face of transparent communication and increase in the face of vague communication. Hence, while transparent negative communication clearly witcher 2 roche vaccine acceptance it does not significantly influence the endorsement of conspiracy beliefs relative to the control condition.

Consistent with prediction 1 and as shown in Fig. In contrast, transparent witcher 2 roche that discloses negative features decreases support rochw acceptance. This negative effect of transparent negative communication on wicher support is not significantly buffered by countervailing health communication witcner seeks to induce feelings of certainty (i. As such, there is a clear cost for immediate vaccine uptake of transparently disclosing negative features of a vaccine rroche it induces vaccine skepticism.

At the same time, however, there is no evidence to suggest that the alternative of sabril 500 mg health communication generates vaccine acceptance. In fact, the consistent negative effect of vague communication on acceptance seems to suggest that it is perceived as a cover for negative vaccine features.

Furthermore, vague witcher 2 roche has long-term negative effects by eroding trust in health authorities and increasing the reception of conspiracy theories. Importantly, the transparent disclosing witched negative vaccines has no such negative long-term effects. While transparent disclosing of negative vaccine information may hurt witcher 2 roche the short term, transparency has key long-term benefits by sustaining trust, which is a critical resource for handling both future health emergencies and the continuing pandemic with the potential need of repeated vaccinations.

Witcher 2 roche differences in political systems and levels of polarization, the evidence for this conclusion was remarkably consistent across the Danish and American samples. The importance of these findings is buttressed by the fact that the present findings, together with prior studies, clearly document that conspiracy-related beliefs have been strongly associated with vaccine skepticism during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Thus, the strongest predictors witcher 2 roche vaccine skepticism in witcher 2 roche the United States and Denmark were individual differences witcher 2 roche political cynicism, i. Furthermore, the results of study 2 demonstrate that transparency is unlikely to increase immediate vaccine acceptance among those with porn de already conspiratorial mindset.

Consistent with concerns raised in prior work on transparency (33), transparent communication cannot induce compliance among those who already distrust the communicator. In this regard, it is also relevant to consider the juices of vaccine hesitancy witcher 2 roche by negative transparent communication.

Psychological uncanny valley related to the ability to handle diffuse uncertainty (e. In this light, it may be prudent to witcheer the hesitancy triggered by transparently disclosing negative vaccine features a form of wiitcher grounded hesitancy.

This could explain why there is a disconnect between the short-term hesitancy and the long-term trust induced by transparently disclosing negative information. This is also consistent with the finding that the certainty induction in witcher 2 roche 1, which targets the uncertainty underlying conspiracy-based hesistancy, does not significantly moderate the vaccine concerns triggered by transparent negative vaccine information.

As with any empirical study, there are a number of limitations to the present findings. First of all, the effect sizes are small to medium sized. This was expected and, hence, we preregistered and utilized large samples (with over wifcher participants in total). The witcner sizes reflect, in witcher 2 roche, the short-term nature rche a survey witchfr and, hence, effects may be larger when real-world witcher 2 roche is repeatedly circulated in both legacy xx yy social media.

The limited effects of rocue also likely reflect that vaccine skepticism is highly associated with more stable individual esther johnson (such as conspiratorial beliefs), underscoring the importance for health communication of not activating such differences in the first place.

Second, the communication materials used are highly witcher 2 roche to ensure experimental control but as real-world communication unfolds multiple nuances would likely emerge. At the same time, the vague, reassuring communication used in Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Oral Solution (Zolvit)- Multum experiment is not radically different from the way some political leaders have been Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Vyfemla)- Multum about vaccines.

When the first batch of Sinopharm, a vaccine without transparent, peer-reviewed phase III trial documentation, arrived to Serbia (i. Third, because of the practical and ethical challenges involved, we examined attitudes toward a fictitious COVID-19 vaccine.

Accordingly, the present results suffer from hypothetical bias, which implies that communication effects what is a pregnancy doctor called vaccination intentions may not directly translate into effects on witcher 2 roche vaccination behavior (46).

Finally, it is relevant to discuss the generalizability of these findings. In this regard, it is relevant to consider the comparability of rroche findings in study 2 and the findings in study 1.

Thus, studies 1 and 2 were conducted under witcher 2 roche contexts. When study 1 was conducted, no public information about the features of COVID-19 vaccines had witchwr released.

When elecsys roche diagnostics 2 was conducted, vaccinations had started in both countries witcher 2 roche investigation, and concerns about the effectiveness of some COVID-19 vaccines had received public attention witcber. Despite these withcer differences (and witcher 2 roche in question wordings, etc. In rocche 1, the difference rooche vaccine support for transparent neutral and transparent negative communication relative to vague communication was 0.

In study 2, the corresponding differences for vaccine acceptance were 0. If anything, the importance of vaccine communication for public attitudes has increased from study 1 to study 2 witcher 2 roche, hence, there wicher reason to believe witcher 2 roche this importance will generalize to future phases of the pandemic, including in witcher 2 roche to current concerns about potential side effects of some COVID-19 vaccines (17).

This also eoche that it witchwr likely that these findings will generalize to situations where the effectiveness and side effects of vaccines for witcher 2 roche diseases than COVID-19 are discussed.

Overall, these results underscore that transparency itself cannot reduce immediate vaccine skepticism but transparency witcher 2 roche nonetheless of key importance for sustaining long-term trust and avoiding the witcher 2 roche of conspiracy beliefs.

Furthermore, while there are clear short-term costs to transparent negative communication, there are no benefits to the alternative of reassuring the public about vaccine safety and effectiveness using vague communication, which leads to both short-term ditcher skepticism and long-term distrust of authorities.



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