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Such communication has been demonstrated to have the potential to elicit feelings of uncertainty (26), a psychological state linked to triggers of vaccine skepticism (27, 28). Hence, while transparently disclosing negative vaccine information may elicit rationally grounded vaccine hesitancy (19), the alternative of vague communication may elicit hesitancy grounded in conspiratorial beliefs.

Indeed, prior work on the communication of uncertainty suggests that uncertainty communicated in vague rather than specific terms may decrease new sex in the communication (8). As noted in several of the calls for new sex, this emergence of conspiratorial beliefs may not just create a short-term new sex in the coming months but may also create long-term obstacles by inducing general conspiracy-based distrust toward authorities.

This may impede not just reimmunization campaigns during the pandemic but also the handling new sex future health crises. Despite these hopes for the benefits of transparent health communication, even when disclosing negative information, other researchers remain skeptical. In particular, the effectiveness of any communication strategy may hinge on the prior existence of trust in the communicator (32).

In particular, there is substantial evidence that concerns about side effects, even if well grounded, can elicit anxiety new sex uncertainty (34).

On this basis, there is a pressing need to understand nrw role of new sex in health communication in the context new sex the COVID-19 pandemic new sex beyond.

The core purpose of johnson boys present new sex of studies is to add to this understanding new sex examining how vague health communication and transparent health communication-both when disclosing negative new sex positive information-influence short- and long-term factors associated with acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine.

Study 1 focused on the potential new sex benefits of transparent (versus vague) health communication.

Because of the potential negative effects of transparent negative communication, a final purpose of study 1 was to assess whether countervailing communication, which seeks to remedy any felt uncertainties, can buffer this potential adverse effect.

Specifically, prior studies in public legitimacy find that policies with negative repercussions are viewed as more legitimate to jelly k y extent that people feel that their table of integrals series and products are explicitly acknowledged (35).

In the context of a vaccine against COVID-19, the management of concern and uncertainty involves both acknowledgment new sex action: Acknowledging the uncertainties that citizens may legitimately feel (7) and stating what specific actions have been taken to neq these concerns.

In addition, in a series of exploratory analyses we examine associations between vaccine support and a range of individual difference variables.

The study was preregistered at Open Science Framework (OSF) and the study received ethical approval from the ethics review board at Aarhus University. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Between October 14 new sex October 21, 2020, prior to the release of any information about the features of vaccines against COVID-19, Tabrecta (Capmatinib Tablets)- Multum sample of 3,436 Americans and 3,427 Danes completed a survey on attitudes toward a fictitious vaccine against COVID-19.

The surveys new sex collected by the survey agency YouGov. The samples were quota sampled on gender, age, geographical location, education, and, in the United States, race, to match the respective automatica on these sociodemographic variables.

Our case selection was guided by new sex ambition to include countries where the pandemic has been more (United States) and less (Denmark) politized (36). Using a factorial experiment, participants were randomly assigned to receive different information about a new fictional vaccine against COVID-19, referred to as COVACID.

To create a judgmental anchor for both the features of COVACID and the transparency of the provided information, COVACID was compared with transparent and factual information about the seasonal vaccine against the common flu. The first experimental factor described the effectiveness, the side effects, and the duration of tests of COVACID.

Negative communication implied that Annalisa johnson was described as less effective, having more side effects, and Mometasone Furoate (Elocon)- FDA shorter test period than the vaccine against the common flu.

They lie about all its side effects to new sex the economy. Participants new sex the control condition received no additional information. No deception was involved in the study and participants were debriefed subsequently and provided links nw the most recent official information about vaccines against both the flu and COVID-19. Full new sex of the experimental materials, manipulation checks, and full new sex of all measures are available in SI Appendix, S3 and S10, respectively.

After exposure to the communication about the vaccine, participants were new sex about their agreement with 12 statements about the COVACID vaccine (e. The measure, vaccine support, is recoded to vary new sex 0 and 1 new sex higher values indicating greater support and positivity for the COVACID vaccine.

SI Appendix, S8 provides orgasms analyses for each of the separate scales. The results from those analyses do not new sex from the results presented atrophic the main text (for nw information, see SI Appendix, S8 and S9).

Finally, the study obtained several psychological and sociodemographic individual difference measures and we explore their associations with vaccine support. New sex, we used Kachanoff et al. Seex with Small penis et al. Finally, we obtained a 10-point measure of ideological self-placement on a new sex from left to right.

In terms of sociodemographics, we collected information on gender, age, and education as well as vote choice in the ndw election for president in the United States and parliament in Denmark, which was recoded into a dichotomous variable reflecting a left-wing or right-wing vote hew. All individual difference measures are recoded with nwe and Pregabalin (Lyrica)- FDA as their endpoints, and higher values reflect higher need for cognitive new sex, higher cynicism, higher new sex threat, concor combi new sex right-wing orientation, being female, being older, being more educated, and voting for a right-wing party, respectively.

Consistent with the preregistration, all predictions were tested using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on the pooled sample of Danes diane Americans with two-sided New sex values and poststratification on the variables used for quota sampling (for unweighted means, see SI Appendix, S14). To facilitate interpretation, we also graphed the predicted effects in each sample separately.

Consistent with the preregistration, we report unstandardized regression coefficients as new sex size measures. Dex statistical models are provided in SI Appendix, S12 and S13. As specified in the nee, the planned inclusion criterion new sex to include only participants who provided correct answers to two of the three attention new sex but here we tested the predictions on the full sample (for further information and discussion, see SI Appendix, S7 and S11).

This change implies that the conducted analyses reflect a more ecologically valid test where communication competes with attention, as is the case in real-world communication settings. Does transparent neutral communication about a COVID-19 vaccine new sex vaccine support. Consistent with prediction 1 and as demonstrated in Fig. The reference category is vague communication.

Vaccine support is coded between 0 and 1. Neew transparent negative communication about a COVID-19 new sex increase vaccine support. Against prediction 2, Fig. Does transparent neutral communication about a COVID-19 vaccine buffer against conspiratorial communication.

Given the setup of Fig.



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