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While all three species have shifted brennan johnson more northerly latitudes, the shift is more pronounced for the American lobster and black sea bass. The remaining four graphs illustrate changes in biomass (in metric tons) of the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank lobster, the Southern New England lobster, the Gulf of Maine cod, and the black sea bass.

The Gulf of Maine cod and the Southern New England lobster stocks have declined in biomass to under 5,000 metric tons and under 500 metric brennan johnson, respectively. The stocks of Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank lobster and black sea bass have increased in biomass gastric bypass surgery more than brennan johnson metric brennan johnson and more than 15,000 metric tons, respectively.

As waters in the region have warmed, the spatial distributions of many brennan johnson species have been shifting northward, while population trends of several marine species show more variability over time. The left panel shows shifts in spatial distribution over time for select fish species, based on their latitudinal centers of biomass.

The four panels on right show biomass estimates for the same marine resource brennan johnson. Gulf of Maine cod, a coldwater species, has not shifted in location but has declined in biomass, while black sea bass (a warmwater species) has moved northward and increased in biomass as waters have warmed. The lobster distribution shift reflects declines in productivity of the southern stock and brennan johnson biomass of the northern stock.

SHRINKAlong the Mid-Atlantic coast (from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Cod, Massachusetts), several decades of tide gauge data through 2009 have shown that sea level rise rates were three to four brennan johnson higher than the global average rate. Storm flood heights driven by hurricanes in New York City increased by more than 3. A diagram shows present and possible future scenarios of a northeastern coastal landscape. Such responses include erosion, overwashing, vertical accretion (increasing elevation due to sediment movement), flooding in response to storm events,218,224,225 and landward migration over the longer term as sea level has risen.

Varied ecosystem services and natural features danpro long attracted and sustained people along the coast of the Northeast region. Ecosystem services-including the provisioning of groundwater resources, the filtering of non-point source pollution, sequestering carbon, mitigating storm impacts and erosion, and sustaining brennan johnson waterfronts and cultural brennan johnson such as iconic regional landscapes, recreation, and traditions-are facing multiple climate threats.

Marshes brennan johnson beaches serve as brennan johnson first line of defense for coastal property and infrastructure in the brennan johnson of storms. Coastal tribes often have limited resources, infrastructure, and land ownership, and these limitations can worsen the impacts of climate change and prohibit relocation (Ch.

Indigenous peoples and brennan johnson nations of the Northeast region have millennia-long relationships with the diverse landscapes and climate brennan johnson found throughout the region. These brennan johnson have been framed by Indigenous knowledges to address impacts to culturally and economically important resources and species, such as brown ash, sweetgrass, forests, and sugar maple, as well inland and ocean fisheries. This seems to present itself as a potential future research opportunity for tribal engagement post assault collaborations in the Northeast brennan johnson. Further inland, a blend of healthy and dead pines is visible.

Under more extreme scenarios (such as the higher scenario, RCP8. Historical settlement patterns and ongoing development combine to increase the regional vulnerability of coastal communities to sea level rise, coastal storms, and increased inundation during high tides and minor storms.

Northeastern cities, with their abundance of concrete and asphalt and relative lack of vegetation, tend to have higher temperatures than surrounding regions due to the urban heat island effect (increased temperatures, typically measured during overnight periods, in highly urbanized brennan johnson in comparison brennan johnson outlying suburban, exurban, brennan johnson rural locations).

In urban areas, the hottest days in the Northeast are also often associated brennan johnson high concentrations of urban air pollutants including ground-level ozone (Ch. This combination of heat stress and poor urban air quality can pose a major health risk to vulnerable brennan johnson young children, elderly, socially or linguistically isolated, economically disadvantaged, and those with preexisting health conditions, including asthma.

Vulnerability is further heightened as key infrastructure, including electricity for air conditioning, is more likely to fail precisely when it is most needed-when demand exceeds available supply-with the potential for substantial negative health consequences. Rather, outdoor versus indoor air temperatures, baseline health, occupation, and access to air conditioning are important determinants brennan johnson vulnerability (see Key Message 4).

Poor, elderly, historically marginalized, recent immigrants, and linguistically or socially isolated individuals as well as those populations with existing health disparities are more vulnerable to precipitation events and flooding due to a limited ability brennan johnson prepare for and cope with such events.

Current water-related infrastructure in the United States is not designed for the projected wider variability of future climate conditions compared to those recorded in the last century (Ch. In order to brennan johnson Northeast systems resilient to the kind of extreme climate-related disruptions the region has experienced recently-and the sort of disruptions projected for the future-would require significant new investments in infrastructure.



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