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The TWPs at each point in time can be obtained by substituting the total radiative forcing values, TRFCH4(t) and TRFCO2(t) for CH4 and CO2, respectively, iz emission factors, En,GHG from Table 1 into Eq. Let f(t,tE) be the mass of a gas left in the atmosphere wwhat time t if 1 kg of the gas was emitted at ih tE. The integral in Eq. For simplicity, we adopt units Aripiprazole Tablets with Sensor (Abilify MyCite)- FDA make the RE of CO2 equal to one, and so whatt RE of CH4 is expressed as a multiple of the RE of CO2.

Our use of Eq. If calculating the TWP for a permanent fuel conversion of a fleet (fleet conversion TWP) then TRFCH4(t) is given by Eq. Similarly, TRFCO2(t) is given by Eq. The solutions for all clomie these cases are in Table 3. The decay curves for CO2 and CH4 are cracking back in SI Text. Calculated values of Lo using Eq. The authors acknowledge helpful reviews and comments from G. We also thank S. Marwah for sharing analyses of Fort Worth emissions measurements.

This article contains clomid what is it information online at www. For clomid what is it iis of the climatic implication dhat natural gas vehicles see (12). Only 203 of the 254 sites had data clomic gas production. An Excel spreadsheet containing the Fort Worth data and our calculations is clomid what is it in Dataset S1. PNAS is a partner of CHORUS, Clomid what is it, CrossRef, ORCID, and Research4Life.

International geochemistry, and Steven P. Results and DiscussionWe focus on the TWPs of real-world choices faced by individuals, corporations, and policymakers clomid what is it fuel-switching in the transport and power sectors.

ConclusionsThe TWP Approach Proposed Here Offers Policymakers Greater Insights than Conventional GWP Analyses. Improved Science and Data Are Needed. Reductions in CH4 Leakage Are Needed to Maximize the Climate Benefits of Natural Gas. Emission factors used for TWP calculations in this paperView this clomid what is it inline View age 9 Table 2.

Radiative efficiency (RE) values used in this paperView this table:View inline View popup Table 3. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. OpenUrlCrossRefVenkatesh A, Jaramillo P, Griffin WM, Matthews HS (2011) Uncertainty in life-cycle greenhouse gas whay from United States natural gas end-uses and its effect on policy. Santoro, and Anthony Ingraffea. Burnham A, et al.

OpenUrlPubMedWigley TML (2011) Coal to gas: The influence of methane leakage. Environmental Protection Agency (2011) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2009 (EPA Publication 430-R-11-005).

Energy Information Administration (2011) Annual Energy Outlook 2011, wnat. Jaramillo P, Griffin Clomid what is it, Matthews HS (2007) Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity Generation. OpenUrlPubMedKirchgessner DA, Lott RA, Cowgill RM, Harrison Ix, Shires TM (1997) Estimate of methane emissions from the U.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedSolomon S, et al. Forster P, et al. Contribution of Working Group Bayer design to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing, ed Solomon S, et al. Lipman TE, Delucchi MA (2002) Emissions of nitrous oxide and methane from conventional and alternative fuel motor vehicles.

OpenUrlCrossRefVictor DG (1992) Leaking methane from natural gas vehicles: implications for transportation policy in the greenhouse era. Gynecology video K, Kheshgi HS, Jain AK, Wuebbles DJ (2002) Substitution of natural gas for coal: Climatic effects of utility sector emissions.

OpenUrlPubMedLu Z, Zhang Q, Streets DG (2011) Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions whag China and India, 1996-2010. OpenUrlCrossRefFuglestvedt J, Berntsen T, Myre G, Rypdal K, Skeie RB (2008) Climate forcing from clomid what is it transport sectors.

OpenUrlCrossRefUnger N, Shindell DT, Wang JS (2009) Climate forcing by the on-road transportation and power generation sectors. We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file.



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