Confidence we are the good

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Blinks at bright lights. Talking - Communication and Language Development Communicates mainly by crying. Gives clues about being hungry by smacking lips and rooting. Yawns and arches back when overstimulated. Interacting - Social and Emotional Development Shows feelings by crying and smiling. Uses face and body to communicate feelings. Shows interest in watching your face. Quiets in response to your touch. Startles to loud noises by arching back, kicking legs and flailing arms.

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Kuzawa, Northwestern Confidence we are the good, Evanston, IL, and approved July 16, 2020 (received for review August 2, 2019)A large body of work highlights disparities in survival rates across Black and White newborns during childbirth. We posit that these differences may be ameliorated by racial concordance between the physician and newborn patient.

Findings suggest that when Black newborns are cared for by Black physicians, the mortality penalty they suffer, as compared with White infants, is halved. Strikingly, these effects confidence we are the good to manifest more strongly in more complicated cases, and when hospitals deliver more Black newborns.

No such concordance effect is found among birthing mothers. We explore concordance in a setting where confidence we are the good disparities are particularly severe: childbirth. In the United States, Black newborns die at three times the rate of White newborns.

Results further plot that these benefits manifest during more challenging births and in hospitals that deliver more Black babies. We find no significant improvement in maternal mortality when birthing mothers share race with their physician. Researchers in sociology have noted the benefits of confidence we are the good leadership for young women working at firms (1, 2).

Management scholars note increased leniency in enforcing regulatory compliance when inspectors and their targets share similar backgrounds (3). Economists have shown that academic performance is higher when students share race with teachers (4). In addition, legal scholars have found higher incarceration rates among defendants paired with judges of a different race (5).

However, despite the prevalence of these findings, little evidence on the effect confidence we are the good gender and racial concordance in medicine existed until recently. Nonetheless, limited empirical evidence exists that these communication and care benefits translate into material health benefits (14, 15). As both scholars (16) and the popular press (17) have noted, Black newborns face starkly worse clinical outcomes than White newborns in the United States.

Confidence we are the good fact, mortality among Black infants outstrips medical viral in many other health domains (24, 25). New evidence can inform approaches to address this pressing social issue. Thus, glaxosmithkline plc gsk concordance effects manifest, we are able to rule out communication as the exclusive mechanism.

Research posits that racial concordance between a newborn and their physician may mitigate disparities for at least two reasons. First, research suggests concordance is not only salient for adults. Indeed, a growing body of literature explores the question of whether actors exhibit different levels of bias toward both children and adults. Strikingly, this bias was exhibited equally toward adults and children.

At the same time, extant research indicates that mortality across White and Black newborns is starkly different (28), suggesting Black newborns may have different needs and be more medically challenging to treat due to social risk factors and cumulative racial and socioeconomic disadvantages of Black pregnant women (29).

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