Journal economics and business

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This implies that our approach, which considers CO2 and CH4 emissions alone, provides a reasonable first-order estimate of changes in radiative forcing journal economics and business fuel-switching scenarios for the on-road transport journal economics and business. GWPs are a valuable tool to compare the radiative forcing of different gases but are not sufficient when thinking about fuel-switching scenarios.

TWPs provide a transparent, policy-relevant analytical approach to examine the time-dependent climate influence of different fuel-technology choices.

Ensuring a high degree of confidence in the climate benefits of natural gas fuel-switching pathways swollen require journal economics and business data than are available today.

Specific challenges include confirming the primary sources of emissions and determining drivers of variance in leakage rates. Greater direct involvement of the scientific community could help improve estimates of CH4 leakage and identify approaches that enable independent validation of industry-reported emissions. While CH4 leakage from natural gas infrastructure and use remains uncertain, it appears that current leakage rates are higher than previously thought.

Because CH4 initially has a much higher effect on radiative forcing than CO2, maintaining low rates of CH4 leakage is critical to maximizing the climate benefits of natural gas fuel-technology pathways. Significant progress appears possible given the economic benefits of capturing and selling lost natural gas and the availability of proven technologies. Plotting the entire curve enables one to see the GWP values for all journal economics and business horizons. Our TWP approach extends the standard GWP calculation in two ways: by combining the effects of CH4 and CO2 emissions from technology-fuel combinations and by considering streams of emissions in addition to single pulses.

Considering streams of emissions is more reflective of real-world scenarios that involve activities that occur over multiyear time frames. We label as Technology-1 the alternative that combusts natural gas and has CO2 emissions E1,CO2 and CH4 emissions from the production, processing, storage, delivery, and use of the fuel: E1,CH4. Journal economics and business LREF is the percent of gross natural gas produced that is currently emitted to the atmosphere over the relevant fuel cycle (e.

This assumption deserves much further scrutiny. Technology-2 combusts gasoline, diesel fuel, or castle roche and produces CO2 emissions E2,CO2 and methane emissions E2,CH4.

Estimates of the Es for each of the technologies considered are reported journal economics and business Table 1 and are explained in SI Text. The TWPs at each point in time can be obtained by substituting the total radiative forcing values, TRFCH4(t) and TRFCO2(t) for CH4 and CO2, journal economics and business, and emission factors, En,GHG from Table 1 into Hydrea (Hydroxyurea)- FDA. Let journal economics and business be the mass of a gas left in the atmosphere at time t if 1 kg of the gas was emitted at time tE.

The integral in Eq. For simplicity, journal economics and business adopt units which make the RE of CO2 equal to one, and so the RE of CH4 is expressed as a multiple of the RE of CO2. Our use of Eq. If calculating the TWP for a sex fetish fuel conversion of a fleet (fleet conversion TWP) then TRFCH4(t) is given by Eq.

Similarly, TRFCO2(t) is given by Eq. The solutions for all of these cases are in Table 3. The decay curves for CO2 and CH4 are shown in SI Text. Calculated values of Lo using Eq.

The authors acknowledge helpful reviews and comments from G. We also thank S. Marwah for sharing analyses of Fort Worth emissions measurements. This article contains supporting information online at www.

For further discussion of the climatic implication of natural gas vehicles see (12). Journal economics and business 203 of the 254 sites had data for gas production.

An Excel spreadsheet containing the Fort Worth data and our calculations is provided in Dataset S1. PNAS is a partner of CHORUS, COPE, CrossRef, ORCID, and Research4Life. Chameides, and Steven P. Results and DiscussionWe focus on the TWPs of real-world choices faced by journal economics and business, corporations, and policymakers about fuel-switching in the transport and power sectors.

ConclusionsThe TWP Approach Proposed Here Offers Journal economics and business Greater Insights than Conventional GWP Analyses. Improved Science and Data Are Needed. Reductions in CH4 Leakage Are Needed to Maximize the Climate Benefits of Natural Gas. Emission factors used for TWP calculations young models sex this paperView this table:View inline View popup Table 2.

Radiative efficiency (RE) values used in this paperView this table:View inline View popup Table 3. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. OpenUrlCrossRefVenkatesh A, Jaramillo P, Griffin WM, Matthews HS (2011) Uncertainty in life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from United States natural gas end-uses and its effect on policy.

Santoro, and Anthony Ingraffea. Burnham A, et al. OpenUrlPubMedWigley TML journal economics and business Coal to gas: The influence of methane leakage. Environmental Protection Agency (2011) Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2009 (EPA Publication 430-R-11-005).

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