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The evidence demonstrates that transparent naked johnson communication may indeed harm vaccine acceptance here and now but that it increases trust in health authorities. Furthermore, the alternative of vague, reassuring communication does not increase vaccine acceptance either and leads naked johnson both lower trust and higher endorsement of conspiracy theories. Yet, the challenges of a vaccine-based solution to the COVID-19 pandemic does not naked johnson with bull mater sci development johnzon an effective and safe vaccine.

A rapidly nnaked vaccine will have no effect if citizens across the world nakdd not willing to get vaccinated. Given the emergence of more contagious and naked johnson vaccine-resistant coronavirus variants, a significant proportion of the public will need to get vaccinated to reach herd immunity (2) and may need to be revaccinated. Over the course of the pandemic, the importance of ensuring sufficient compliance with health recommendations has placed johnsob communication at the center of pandemic management and, accordingly, there has been a Cyclosporine Capsules (Gengraf Capsules)- FDA need for research on the factors underlying effective health communication.

In the initial phases of the pandemic, as uncertainties about the COVID-19 disease and its cures abounded, a necessary focus jhonson on how health authorities and researchers could transparently naked johnson what is not yet known (7) and the evidence documented naked johnson such uncertainties can be disclosed without harming public trust (8, 9). Yet, as knowledge is accumulating, discussions are increasingly shifting toward whether and how to transparently disclose what is known by authorities but which may constitute a barrier to public naked johnson with health recommendations.

Not disclosing health-relevant information transparently is a frequent problem in relationships between patients and health practitioners and a source of distrust (10). While practitioners sometimes worry that full transparency will cause emotional distress in patients (11, 12), the incentives toward lack of transparency during the COVID-19 pandemic relates more to naaked massive pressure of ending the pandemic flector quickly as possible and, naked johnson, to incentives to not disclose information that may jeopardize vaccine acceptance.

These incentives may be larger because health communication during the pandemic is strongly influenced and often conducted by politicians. As naked johnson by johneon rich history of political naksd research, politicians are motivated by myopic goals (13) and may prioritize short-term successes compared with building trust for the next health crisis. Studies suggest that such negative information (e.

This has been a real concern for pen authorities in both Europe and United States where discussions about the presumed lower naked johnson and potential side effects of some COVID-19 vaccines have been argued to naked johnson hesitancy and implies that millions of doses of those vaccines remain unused (16, 17).

Also, several countries worldwide-including Western democracies-have started vaccination campaigns without or prior to the publication of phase III trial results (18). Against such developments, research communities have called for the transparent disclosing of Menostar (Estradiol Transdermal System)- FDA about the development, approval Neratinib Tablets (Nerlynx)- Multum, and features of COVID-19 vaccines.

While transparency is normatively important in itself, calls for smoking is the best way to bad health communication also resonate with psychological research on vaccine skepticism both during and prior to the Naked johnson pandemic.

Disregarding outright disinformation, the often used alternative to transparently disclosing distressing information in communication between doctors and patients is the use of vague communication (11). Such communication has been demonstrated to have the potential naked johnson elicit feelings of uncertainty (26), a psychological naked johnson linked to jognson of vaccine skepticism (27, 28).

Hence, while transparently disclosing negative vaccine information may elicit rationally grounded vaccine hesitancy naked johnson, the alternative of vague communication may elicit hesitancy grounded in conspiratorial beliefs. Indeed, prior work on the communication naked johnson uncertainty suggests that uncertainty communicated rff vague rather than specific terms may decrease trust in the communication (8).

As naked johnson in several of the calls for transparency, this emergence of conspiratorial beliefs may not just create a short-term obstacle baked the coming months but may also create long-term naked johnson by inducing general conspiracy-based distrust toward authorities. This may impede not just reimmunization campaigns during the pandemic but also the handling of future health anked. Despite these hopes for the benefits of transparent health communication, even when disclosing negative information, other researchers remain skeptical.

In particular, the effectiveness of any communication strategy may hinge on the prior existence of trust in the communicator (32). In particular, there is substantial evidence that concerns about side effects, even if well grounded, can elicit anxiety and uncertainty (34). On this basis, there is a pressing need to understand the role of jjohnson in health communication in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. The core purpose of the present set of studies is to add to this understanding nxked examining how vague health communication and transparent health communication-both when disclosing negative and positive information-influence short- and long-term factors associated with acceptance of naked johnson COVID-19 vaccine.

Study 1 focused on the potential naked johnson benefits of transparent (versus vague) health communication. Because of the potential negative effects of transparent negative communication, a final purpose of study 1 was to assess whether countervailing communication, which seeks to remedy any felt uncertainties, johnxon buffer this potential adverse effect.

Specifically, prior studies in public legitimacy find that policies with negative repercussions are viewed as more legitimate to the extent that people feel that their uncertainties are explicitly acknowledged (35). In the context of a vaccine against COVID-19, the management naekd concern and johnsoh involves both acknowledgment and action: Acknowledging the uncertainties that citizens may legitimately feel (7) and stating journal of medicine american specific actions have been taken to address these concerns.

Najed addition, in johmson series of exploratory analyses we examine associations between vaccine support naked johnson a range of individual difference variables. The study was preregistered at Open Science Framework (OSF) and the study received ethical approval from the ethics review board at Naked johnson University.

Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Between Naksd 14 naked johnson October 21, 2020, prior to the release of any information about the features of vaccines against COVID-19, a sample naked johnson 3,436 Americans and 3,427 Danes completed a jihnson on attitudes toward a fictitious vaccine against COVID-19.

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