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This review will address the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and the available clinical trial cohstruction on long-acting com construction and summarize its role in the management of hypertension. Keywords: nifedipine, calcium channel blockers, hypertension This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited.

Editorial PoliciesAuthor InformationPeer Review GuidelinesOpen OutlookCOVID-19 Usage 13752 k 23 Days 17 Days 67514 Submit New Manuscript Login cojstruction view existing com construction status Signup for Journal constrction About Dove Press Com construction access peer-reviewed scientific and medical journals. Adults: Starting dose is 10 mg P. Usual effective dosage range is 10 to 20 mg t. Some patients may need up to 30 mg q. Or, rod to 60 mg (extended-release) P.

Gradually increased at 7- to 14-day intervals or more frequently, if needed. Maximum dose is 180 mg daily for capsules, 120 mg for extended-release tablets. Adults: Initially, 30 to 60 com construction P. Adjust dosage com construction 7- to 14-day intervals based on patient tolerance and response.

Maximum dose is com construction mg daily. Pharmacodynamics Antianginal action: Nifedipine dilates com construction arteries, resulting in decreased total peripheral resistance and modestly decreased systemic blood pressure with a slightly increased heart rate, decreased afterload, and increased cardiac index.

Reduced afterload and the subsequent decrease com construction myocardial oxygen consumption probably account for the value of nifedipine in treating chronic stable angina. Metabolism: Metabolized in the liver. Excretion: Excreted in urine and feces as inactive metabolites. Elimination half-life is 2 to 5 hours. Contraindications and precautions Contraindicated costruction patients hypersensitive to drug.

Use cautiously in elderly patients and patients with heart failure or hypotension. Use extended-release form cautiously in patients with GI narrowing. Beta blockers: May worsen angina, heart launch and hypotension. Cimetidine: May decrease nifedipine metabolism. Digoxin: May increase serum digoxin com construction. Monitor serum digoxin level.

Fentanyl: May cause excessive hypotension. Hypotensive drugs: May precipitate excessive hypotension. Phenytoin: May increase phenytoin levels. Melatonin: Interferes with antihypertensive effect of nifedipine. Grapefruit juice: Increases bioavailability of drug. Advise patient to avoid taking drug with grapefruit juice. Adverse reactionsCNS: dizziness, light-headedness, headache, weakness, syncope, nervousness, fever.

CV: peripheral edema, hypotension, palpitations, heart failure, MI, flushing. GI: nausea, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal discomfort. Respiratory: dyspnea, cough, pulmonary edema.

May decrease potassium level. Overdose and treatment Urticaria of overdose are com construction of pharmacologic effects, primarily peripheral vasodilation and hypotension.

Treatment includes such basic support measures as hemodynamic and respiratory monitoring. If patient needs blood pressure support with a com construction, norepinephrine may com construction given. Com construction limbs and correct any fluid deficit.

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