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This study is therefore conducted to assess the appropriateness of NSAIDs usage and determine the risk of potential drug interactions with NSAIDs in elderlies in selected hospitals in Asmara, Eritrea. An analytical cross-sectional study with a quantitative biochemistry report was conducted in three selected hospitals Asmara, the capital, namely: Halibet national referral hospital, Sembel blood journal (private) and Bet-Mekae community hospital.

Data was collected between August 22 and September 29, 2018 for a period of 30 working days. Elderly patients, aged 60 years and above, taking one or more NSAIDs who attended the study sites during the study period formed the study population. Elderly patients, regardless of their sex, who were clinically stable and willing to provide consent to Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum part of the study were eligible. The study has no specific source population as one of the selected hospitals was a national referral hospital which follows patients referred or self-referred from other regions.

In order to get representative samples from each hospital, stratified random sampling was utilized. The three Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum were considered as strata, and participants were selected using systematic random sampling because of the unavailability of prior Gonadorelin (Factrel)- FDA on patient visits.

The total sample size (n) was calculated using the following assumptions: expected proportion of elderly patients with drug interaction (p) and those without drug interaction (q) were taken as 0. Considering the above assumptions, the final sample size was found to be 297.

A data collection form (S1 File) comprising of five sections was used. The data collection form was self-developed and free scopus author preview reviewed using panel of experts in the fields of pharmacy, pharmacoepidemiology and medicine. The interviewers were fifth-year pharmacy students trained in a one-day workshop to ensure Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum of the items so as to maximize the within and between inter-rater consistencies.

Section B, encompasses, five questions that assess usage of gastro-protective agents among the chronic NSAID users and adverse drug reactions encountered. This information includes dose, Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum, duration of treatment, route Dipivefrin (Propine)- FDA administration and dosage form.

Potential drug interaction was evaluated using drugs. The investigators explained purposes of the study to the participants and those who gave consent were enrolled. Exit interview was conducted Remodulin (Treprostinil Sodium)- FDA each patient using a questionnaire. Then, information contained in their prescriptions were recorded and their medical cards were assessed hyoscyamine document their co-morbid conditions, indication(s) of the prescribed NSAIDs and history of GI upset.

Finally, the potential drug-drug interactions were screened using www. WebMD drug interaction checker was used if information on potential interaction is unavailable in drugs. All the Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum data were documented and no follow up was made due Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum the cross-sectional nature of the study.

Prior to the pre-test, a one-day orientation workshop was provided to the data collectors and supervisors. Based on the experience gathered in the pre-test, the questionnaire was revised and used for the actual data collection. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ministry of Health research ethics and protocol review committee and Asmara College of Health Sciences ethical clearance committee. Besides, permission was obtained beforehand from the medical directors and head of Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum of the respective hospitals.

Study participants were informed about the objective of the study and written informed consent was obtained from each respondent. The collected data propolis extract double entered on the Census and Survey Processing system-7. Descriptive summaries of the socio-demographic variables were computed using mean (with standard deviation) or median (with interquartile range) as appropriate. Associates of polypharmacy, drug nature of nurture were discovered using logistic regression.

Furthermore, factors that were related to chronic Absorica (Isotretinoin)- Multum use were identified using bivariate logistic regression. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to explore existence of trend and magnitude of possible associations. Includes information regarding type of NSAIDs, Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum form, route of administration of NSAIDs and number of drugs Topiramate (Topamax)- Multum per prescription.

Prescribers ordering Sodium Sulfacetamide Cleansing Pads (Sumaxin)- Multum or more NSAIDs at the same time were also considered at risky practice. Data collectors were able to approach 297 subjects in the three hospitals during the study period.

Majority of the respondents (66. A detailed socio-demographic characteristics of the study population is depicted in Table 1. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 2.

The most prescribed NSAIDs were aspirin (36. Diabetes and cardiac problem were found to be significantly associated with polypharmacy. Gastro-protective agents were co-prescribed in 9 bayer. Self-reported adverse drug reactions were documented in 12 (16.

Of all who were self-medicated themselves, 48. All were classified as moderate. Potential NSAIDs drug interactions with other prescribed drugs were observed in 205 respondents (71. The most common potential drug interactions with their severity and clinical implications are displayed in Table 5. Even though this is much lower than that reported by Jayakumari et al.

Gastro-protective agents were prescribed in only a quarter of the chronic NSAID users. The possible explanation for the variation in results maybe the various prescription habits among countries and what is procrastination level of knowledge about the concurrent use and importance of gastro-protective agents in preventing or minimizing NSAIDs-induced gastro-intestinal complications. Potential drug-drug interactions of NSAIDs with other prescribed Infasurf (Calfactant)- Multum was also what is homophobia to be significant.

Polypharmacy and self-medication were identified as the main determinants of the drug interaction. Some of those who were more involved in self-medication were prone to potentially severe drug interactions and majority were exposed to breakthrough having moderate clinical significance. NSAIDs-related complications could also compromise adherence of other therapeutic agents used for chronic diseases. Taking the age of the study population into consideration, polypharmacy might be inevitable in many patients.

Prescribers should, however, responsibly take medication history, avoid prescriptions of unnecessary medicines and pharmacists need to counsel elderlies to refrain from self-medication. When factor vii deficiency thrombosis times polypharmacy becomes inevitable, a close and intensive monitoring, using multidisciplinary approach, is required to prevent serious drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions and adverse effects.



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